Translation, reliability, and structural validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the general population of Mongolia

Authors

  • Enkhnaran Tumurbaatar (1) Brain Science Institute, Graduate School, Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. (2) Department of International Cyber Education, Graduate School, Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8944-9685
  • Tetsuya Hiramoto Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Fukuoka National Hospital, National Hospital Organization, Fukuoka, Japan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1773-7637
  • Gantsetseg Tumur-Ochir Department of Mental Health, Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4534-892X
  • Oyunsuren Jargalsaikhan Department of Psychology, University of the Humanities, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7815-1122
  • Ryenchindorj Erkhembayar Department of International Cyber Education, Graduate School, Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0603-184X
  • Tsolmon Jadamba (1) Timeline Research Center, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. (2) Center of Excellence in Brain Research, Institute of Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7455-9777
  • Battuvshin Lkhagvasuren (!) Brain Science Institute, Graduate School, Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. (2) Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, International University of Health and Welfare Narita Hospital, Narita, Chiba, Japan. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8085-4361

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3Suppl.101

Keywords:

validation study, confirmatory factor analysis, Mongolia, general population, Mon-TimeLine

Abstract

Various psychological, biological, and social factors make people vulnerable to mental health problems. These precursory factors as mental distress, are not sufficient alone for diagnosing a mental disorder but are recognised as risks to mental health. There has been no screening tool available in Mongolia that is adequately validated for mental health screening and neuropsychiatric functions of the brain. Therefore, we aimed to translate and validate the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) to identify potential mental distress in healthy people. The HADS is reliable, valid, and practical for identifying the most common psychological disturbances. This nationwide comparative observational study for the validity of a self-reported measure was conducted between June and December 2020. One thousand ninety-four participants were randomly selected, aged 13-75, mean age was 37.7±13.7 years old, 60.9% were females, 63.9% were married. HADS total score was 13.0±5.7, HADS anxiety (HADS-A) score was 6.8±3.6, and HADS depression (HADS-D) score was 6.0±3.1 for the original two-factor model. The external reliability was good in the whole scale, and both subscales using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (0.872, 0.837, and 0.801 for the HADS-T, HADS-A, and HADS-D, respectively). Cronbach's alpha value was 0.776, 0.756, and 0.582, respectively, for the HADS-T, HADS-A, and HADS-D, indicating an acceptable internal consistency for the entire scale but marginal reliability for the HADS-D subscale. The reliability of both the two-factor and three-factor structures of the HADS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis with a satisfactory model fit on a separate sample. In conclusion, the Mongolian version of the HADS can be considered a valid and reliable measurement tool for various scientific and clinical practices in the general population.

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Published

2021-11-24

How to Cite

Tumurbaatar, E., Hiramoto, T., Tumur-Ochir , G., Jargalsaikhan, O., Erkhembayar, R., Jadamba, T. and Lkhagvasuren, B. (2021) “Translation, reliability, and structural validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the general population of Mongolia ”, Neuroscience Research Notes, 4(3Suppl), pp. 30–39. doi: 10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3Suppl.101.