Transcriptomic profiling of skeletal muscle from the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome suggests dysregulation of trisomic genes associated with neuromuscular junction signaling, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation


  • Melody Pui Yee Leong Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Usman Bala Department of Human Anatomy Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Chai Ling Lim Department of Human Anatomy Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Rozita Rosli Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Pike-See Cheah Department of Human Anatomy Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • King Hwa Ling Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.



soleus, extensor digitorum longus, skeletal muscle, microarray, Down syndrome


Ts1Cje is a mouse model of Down syndrome (DS) with partial triplication of chromosome 16, which encompasses a high number of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) orthologous genes. The mouse model exhibits muscle weakness resembling hypotonia in DS individuals. The effect of extra gene dosages on muscle weakness or hypotonia in Ts1Cje and DS individuals remains unknown. To identify molecular dysregulation of the skeletal muscle, we compared the transcriptomic signatures of soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles between the adult Ts1Cje and disomic littermates. A total of 166 and 262 differentially expressed protein-coding genes (DEGs) were identified in the soleus and EDL muscles, respectively. The partial trisomy of MMU16 in Ts1Cje mice has a greater effect on gene expression in EDL. Top-down clustering analysis of all DEGs for represented functional ontologies revealed 5 functional clusters in soleus associated with signal transduction, development of reproductive system, nucleic acid biosynthesis, protein modification and metabolism as well as regulation of gene expression. On the other hand, only 3 functional clusters were observed for EDL namely neuron and cell development, protein modification and metabolic processes as well as ion transport. A total of 11 selected DEGs were validated using qPCR (disomic DEGs: Mansc1; trisomic DEGs: Itsn1, Rcan1, Synj1, Donson, Dyrk1a, Ifnar1, Ifnar2, Runx1, Sod1 and Tmem50b). The validated DEGs were implicated in neuromuscular junction signalling (Itsn1, Syn1), oxidative stress (Sod1, Runx1) and chronic inflammation processes (Runx1, Rcan1, Ifnar1, Ifnar2). Other validated DEGs have not been well-documented as involved in the skeletal muscle development or function, thus serve as interesting novel candidates for future investigations. To our knowledge, the study was the first attempt to determine the transcriptomic profiles of both soleus and EDL muscles in Ts1Cje mice. It provides new insights on the possible disrupted molecular pathways associated with hypotonia in DS individuals.


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How to Cite

Leong, M. P. Y., Bala, U., Lim, C. L., Rosli, R., Cheah, P.-S. and Ling, K. H. (2018) “Transcriptomic profiling of skeletal muscle from the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome suggests dysregulation of trisomic genes associated with neuromuscular junction signaling, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation”, Neuroscience Research Notes, 1(1), pp. 21-41. doi: 10.31117/neuroscirn.v1i1.12.



Research Notes