Neuroscience Research Notes https://neuroscirn.org/ojs/index.php/nrnotes A high quality, free open access and peer-reviewed journal from scientists to scientists. en-US <p>The observations and associated materials published or posted by NeurosciRN are licensed by the authors for use and distribution in accord with the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="external noopener">Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC 4.0 international</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.</p> info@neuroscirn.org (Connie Ling) info@neuroscirn.org (Connie Ling) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Free open access to liberate and unleash neglected science https://neuroscirn.org/ojs/index.php/nrnotes/article/view/4 <p>Open access has become a choice for scientific publication. In many countries, open access publication has been made compulsory for publicly funded studies. Since 2013, government-funded research paper in United States must be made freely available within 12 months of publication. Such policy will ensure maximum accessibility and circulation of published articles. While the scientific community is benefited at large due to free access and distribution of published materials, open access publication is never free due to the various costs involved in the production, permanent archival and digitalisation of scholarly articles.</p> King Hwa Ling, Noraishah Mydin Abdul-Aziz, Norshariza Nordin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://neuroscirn.org/ojs/index.php/nrnotes/article/view/4 Sun, 04 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0800 Cellular function of satellite cells does not play a role in muscle weakness of adult Ts1Cje mice https://neuroscirn.org/ojs/index.php/nrnotes/article/view/6 <p>Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic condition resulting from triplication of human chromosome (HSA)21. Besides intellectual disability, DS is frequently associated with hypotonia. Satellite cells are the resident cells that provides robust and remarkable regenerative capacity to the skeletal muscles, and its population size has been reported to be disease-associated. &nbsp;However, little is known about the population size of satellite cells in DS and the association of its intrinsic cellular functionality and hypotonia seen in DS. Here, we studied the Ts1Cje mouse, a DS murine model displays the muscle weakness characteristic. Satellite cell populations were immunostained with Pax7 and myonuclei numbers in the Ts1Cje extensor digitorum longus muscle were assessed. Their cellular function was further determined via <em>in vitro</em> assay in high-serum conditioned medium. Subsequently, the <em>in vitro </em>self-renewal, proliferative, and differentiation activities of these myogenic precursor cells were assessed after 24, 48, and 72h using Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 immunomarkers. Our results showed that the population and functionality of Ts1Cje satellite cell did not differ significantly when compared to the wildtype cells isolated from disomic littermates. In conclusion, our findings indicate that intrinsic cellular functionality of the satellite cells, do not contribute to muscle weakness in Ts1Cje mouse.</p> Chai Ling Lim, Usman Bala, Melody Pui-Yee Leong, Johnson Stanslas, Rajesh Ramasamy, King-Hwa Ling, Pike-See Cheah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://neuroscirn.org/ojs/index.php/nrnotes/article/view/6 Tue, 15 May 2018 06:33:45 +0800 Genetic association study of PDLIM5 and HTR2A variants in Malaysian subjects diagnosed with bipolar disorder; a genetic modelling approach https://neuroscirn.org/ojs/index.php/nrnotes/article/view/9 <p>Genetic hereditary has been implicated in bipolar disorder pathogenesis. The <em>PDLIM5</em> and <em>HTR2A</em> genes have been investigated for its association with bipolar disorder in various populations, however, the results have been conflicting. In this study, we investigate the association between bipolar disorder and the two genes of interest, <em>PDLIM5</em> and <em>HTR2A</em> genes. We recruited 253 bipolar disorder patients (75 Malays, 104 Chinese, and 74 Indians) and 505 control individuals (198 Malays, 155 Chinese, and 152 Indians) from three ethnic groups within Malaysian population. We genotyped for 3 SNPs of the <em>PDLIM5</em> (rs2433320, rs2433322 and rs2438146) and 3 SNPs of the <em>HTR2A</em> (rs6313, rs2070040 and rs6311). Significant associations between bipolar disorder and each of the 3 SNPs of <em>PDLIM5</em> in Malays, Indians and pooled samples. However, only rs2438146 remains significant in the Malays as co-dominant (T/T vs. C/C, p=0.004, OR=0.128, 95%CI=0.031-0.524) and recessive genetic models (T/T vs. C/T+C/C, p=0.003, OR=0.122, 95%CI=0.030-0.494) after applying conservative Bonferroni correction. Haplotype analysis of 3 SNPs of <em>PDLIM5</em> also showed a significant association with bipolar disorder. No association was observed between bipolar disorder and each of the 3 SNPs of <em>HTR2A</em> in any of the ethnicities. We conclude that <em>PDLIM5</em> polymorphisms are associated with bipolar disorder in the pooled analysis. After stratification to different ethnic groups, the association remains significant in the Malay and Indian groups. The association is also supported by the significant association in haplotype analysis of <em>PDLIM5</em>. We also conclude there is no association between the <em>HTR2A</em> polymorphisms in the Malaysian population.</p> Mohd Aizat Zain, Nor Zuraida Zainal, Sharmilla Kanagasundram, Zahurin Mohamed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://neuroscirn.org/ojs/index.php/nrnotes/article/view/9 Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0800