Neuroscience Research Notes A high quality, free open access and peer-reviewed journal from scientists to scientists. Neurotak Publishing (BC0008786-U) en-US Neuroscience Research Notes 2576-828X <p>The observations and associated materials published or posted by NeurosciRN are licensed by the authors for use and distribution in accord with the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="external noopener">Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC 4.0 international</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.</p> Role of nanotechnology in therapeutics and diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease <p>Alzheimer's disease refers to a pathological topography accompanied by the loss of neurons in the brain regions including entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, resulting in memory impairment, cognitive dysfunction, behavioural problems, and difficulties in activities of daily living that ultimately lead to mortality. This disease typically affects the elderly population. Even if the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear, Alzheimer's disease is unquestionably associated with dysfunction in the cholinergic system, resulting in a decreased level of acetylcholine in specific brain regions, including the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular and cellular causes of Alzheimer's disease, there is presently no medication available to reduce or stop the loss of brain cells. As the number of individuals with Alzheimer's disease continues to rise, there is a pressing need to develop ways for early diagnosis and offer viable treatments to avert a public health crisis. In recent years, nanoparticles have been seriously studied as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for Alzheimer's disease. Here, we discuss the recent growth in nanoparticles for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and treatment.</p> Dhivya P Sundaram Swathy Govindaswamy Sobiya Mathiazhagan Jayalakshmi Venugopal Copyright (c) 2024 Dhivya P Sundaram, Swathy Govindaswamy, Sobiya Mathiazhagan, Jayalakshmi Venugopal 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 1 225.1 225.9 10.31117/neuroscirn.v7i1.225 Neuroinflammation-induced neurodegeneration and associated microglia activation in Parkinson’s disease: a novel neurotherapeutic avenue <p>Parkinson’s disease (PD) is classified as one type of neurodegenerative disorder. Movement disorder, which includes resting tremors and slowness of movement, is a common clinical symptom in PD patients. Neuroinflammation is one of the most important processes involved in the pathogenesis of PD. An inflammatory response in the brain can induce neuronal cell death. Microglia, a type of immune cell, plays a crucial role in neuroinflammation. In this review, we discussed the information on microglia-activated neuroinflammation, its relationship with PD, and therapeutic approaches for neuroinflammation in PD. Under normal conditions, microglia in their inactive state (M0) act as surveillance agents in the brain to investigate potential invasions. They regulate neuron production, remodel synapses, and secrete growth factors to protect the neurons. Under pathological conditions, the M0 transforms into active phenotypes, dividing into pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) microglia. The M1 and M2 microglia exhibit opposite functions, where M1 microglia promote pro-inflammatory responses, and M2 microglia promote anti-inflammatory responses. This dichotomy of functions is essential for maintaining a healthy level of inflammation in the brain. Presently, multiple therapeutic strategies are available for PD, encompassing anti-inflammatory drugs, neuroprotective compounds, antioxidants, nanoparticles targeting neuroinflammation, stem cell interventions, lifestyle adjustments, and microglia-focused treatments. These treatments improve patients' movement, allowing them to have lifestyles like others, consequently benefiting their mental and emotional well-being. Preventing microglia from polarising into the M1 phenotype and promoting their polarisation into the M2 phenotype could be a challenging and promising approach for treating PD.</p> Panlekha Rungruang Veerawat Sansri Morakot Sroyraya Copyright (c) 2024 Panlekha Rungruang, Veerawat Sansri, Morakot Sroyraya 2024-03-17 2024-03-17 7 1 271.1 271.21 10.31117/neuroscirn.v7i1.271 Psychological science in Mongolia: Its history, development, and future prospects <p style="font-weight: 400;">This review paper explores the history, development, current state, and future prospects of psychological science in Mongolia. The establishment of the first department of pedagogical psychology in 1954 and the publication of the first Mongolian psychology textbook in 1960 marked the initial steps in the field's development. Dr. Sanjjav Damdinjav's pioneering PhD in 1966 and subsequent international representation paved the way for further growth. Currently, most Mongolian psychologists work across both public and private sectors. Education, healthcare, and justice/military services are the key employer groups in the public sector. Promising research has emerged in recent years, focusing on child and youth development, social support and well-being, psychological factors and financial credit risk, and tool adaptation for psychological assessment. Despite these advancements, significant challenges remain. These include a need for nationally licensed graduate programs, limited research funding, an outdated academic system, political interference in public university governance, a shortage of specialised personnel, and high research infrastructure costs. The most pressing issue is the need for graduate programs and corresponding job opportunities for major specialities like clinical, cognitive, and developmental psychology. Potential solutions include introducing graduate programs in key specialities, establishing licensure regulations, addressing systemic gaps, and increasing financial support for research institutions and universities. These steps would lay a strong foundation for the field, fostering its sustained growth and enabling meaningful contributions to Mongolian development.</p> Binderiya Bayanmunkh Batsukh Shairii Buyantungalag Battulga Tsolmon Jadamba Battuvshin Lkhagvasuren Bayarmaa Tsend Copyright (c) 2024 Binderiya Bayanmunkh, Batsukh Shairii, Buyantungalag Battulga, Tsolmon Jadamba, Battuvshin Lkhagvasuren, Bayarmaa Tsend 2024-03-17 2024-03-17 7 1 242.1 242.8 10.31117/neuroscirn.v7i1.242 Gene expression analysis in plasma of patients with Alzheimer's disease <p>Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a neurodegenerative disease, cannot be noticed until severe symptoms are observed. This poses a global challenge as the average human lifespan increases, making it a concern for the entire world population. Early diagnosis can play a crucial role in slowing the progression of the disease, thereby enhancing the quality of life for both the patient and their relatives. AD has been linked to alterations in mRNA expressions. The objective of the presented study was to determine whether there were significant differences in gene expression in blood plasma between Alzheimer's patients and healthy controls. <em>MAPT, APP, Tubb3, TrkB, </em>and <em>CDC42</em> genes were selected as target genes due to their potential associations with AD. To analyse mRNA expression levels in the control group and AD patients, the real-time PCR (qPCR) method was performed. The findings indicate that MAPT, APP, Tubb3, and CDC42 genes' expression levels were significantly downregulated by 1.09, 1.08, 1.09, and 1.14 times, respectively (p&lt;0.05) in AD patients. Although the <em>TrkB</em> gene expression appeared to be downregulated by 1.03 times in the AD group, it is not statistically different. Given the molecular associations between the pathways of the target genes and AD, changes in the expression of these genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. They may represent potential biomarkers for early diagnosis.</p> Seda Kusoglu Gultekin Irem Gulfem Albayrak Yunus Diler Ayse Destina Yalcin Belkis Atasever Arslan Copyright (c) 2024 Seda Kusoglu Gultekin, Irem Gulfem Albayrak, Yunus Diler, Ayse Destina Yalcin, Belkis Atasever Arslan 2024-03-23 2024-03-23 7 1 302.1 302.9 10.31117/neuroscirn.v7i1.302 Comparative retrospective analysis: exploring the quality of life of people with epilepsy in two cohorts <p>People with epilepsy (PWE) are reported to have a lower quality of life (QOL). QOL among PWE were primarily observed through cross-sectional studies, and there is little information about the progression of QOL among PWE over the years. This study aimed to investigate the changes in QOL among PWE at a tertiary referral centre. A retrospective observational study was conducted among PWE from the Neurology clinic at the University Malaya Medical Centre. Data were extracted from the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31) database for 2016, 2017, and 2020. A total of 88 subjects were included in Cohort 1 (2016 vs. 2017) and Cohort 2 (2017 vs. 2020), respectively. There was a significant improvement in mean scores of QOLIE-31 in Cohort 1 (57.7±12.2 vs. 63.2±14.2; p&lt;0.001), in terms of seizure worry, emotional well-being, cognitive functioning, medication effects and social function (p&lt;0.05, respectively). However, significant deterioration was observed in Cohort 2 (67.1±15.6 vs. 63.1±14.9; p=0.008), in terms of seizure worry and cognitive functioning (p&lt;0.05, respectively). Based on the calculated Jacobson Reliable Change Index (RCI) for the QOLIE-31 score, 28.4% from Cohort 2 experienced deterioration of QOL as compared to those from Cohort 1 (8%) (p&lt;0.001), which was most likely attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study provides insights into the change of QOL among PWE in Malaysia over time, encompassing the COVID-19 pandemic period.</p> Hui-Yin Yow Kheng-Seang Lim Melpreet Kuar Bhatt Si-Lei Fong Christine Audrey Copyright (c) 2024 Hui-Yin Yow, Kheng-Seang Lim, Melpreet Kuar Bhatt, Si-Lei Fong, Christine Audrey 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 7 1 310.1 310.10 10.31117/neuroscirn.v7i1.310 Default mode network perturbations in Alzheimer's disease: an fMRI study in Klang Valley, Malaysia <p>The default mode network (DMN) is a large neural network that has a significant correlation with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Grey matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity (FC) involving the regions of the DMN have been noted to differ significantly between AD and healthy older adults. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of data on the structural and functional changes in the DMN of AD patients in Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Klang Valley, Malaysia, to evaluate AD subjects compared to healthy controls (HC) using a resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) experiment. We recruited 22 subjects (AD=11, HC=11) and conducted neuropsychological tests such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). The subjects then underwent rs-fMRI scans, and subsequently, we quantitatively analysed the GMV by Voxel based Morphometry (VBM) using the structural data. We also utilised the CONN toolbox on Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to evaluate the FC and activation of the nodes of the DMN. In comparison with the HC group, the AD group demonstrated a reduction in GMV in the right and left inferior temporal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus medial segment, right gyrus rectus, right temporal lobe, left putamen, and right precuneus. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the FC of the nodes of the DMN noted on rs-fMRI (cluster-size corrected p&lt;0.05). In particular, the precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex had decreased FC in AD compared to HC. Hence, structural and resting-state fMRI can detect distinct imaging biomarkers of AD based on GMV and DMN functional connectivity profiles. This tool can be used as a non-invasive tool for improving the feature detection and diagnosis of AD in the Malaysian population.</p> Nur Hafizah Mohad Azmi Subapriya Suppiah Nur Shahidatul Nabila Ibrahim Ibrahim Buhari Vengkhata Priya Seriramulu Mazlyfarina Mohamad Thilakavathy Karuppiah Nur Farhayu Omar Normala Ibrahim Rizzah Mazzuin Razali Noor Harzana Harrun Hakimah Mohammad Sallehuddin Nisha Syed Nasser Umar Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Nur Hafizah Mohad Azmi , Subapriya Suppiah , Nur Shahidatul Nabila Ibrahim, Ibrahim Buhari, Vengkhata Priya Seriramulu , Mazlyfarina Mohamad , Thilakavathy Karuppiah , Nur Farhayu Omar, Normala Ibrahim, Rizzah Mazzuin Razali , Noor Harzana Harrun , Hakimah Mohammad Sallehuddin , Nisha Syed Nasser, Umar Ahmad 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 7 1 284.1 284.14 10.31117/neuroscirn.v7i1.284 Bibliometric analysis of neurofeedback research from 2000 to 2022 <p>The application of neurofeedback is gaining increasing interest among neuroscientists as a potential neurorehabilitation approach in cases of various neuro-related functional abnormalities. Discovering the current state of research and identifying gaps in the field of neurofeedback is an essential step in planning and mapping out future research efforts. This bibliometric analysis paper aims to identify the publications and research in neurofeedback from 2000 to 2022. A comprehensive Scopus database search was conducted using the keyword "neurofeedback" and relevant publications from 2000 to 2022 were retrieved. Bibliometric analyses were performed using the Harzing's Publish or Perish and VOSviewer software programmes. The number of retrieved documents was 1835. The number of publications has shown a steadily increasing trend since 2000, with a prominent spike in publications in 2014–2015, indicating a sudden interest in neurofeedback. Among the retrieved documents, 50.3% were related to neuroscience, 23.7% related to medicine, and 13.1% related to psychology. The main contributors to this research come from the United States (24.7%), Germany (13.7%), the United Kingdom (9.4%), and Switzerland (4.9%). Based on the network visualisation of author keywords, the most frequently occurring keywords were neurofeedback, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), brain-computer interface (BCI), neuromodulation, and neurofeedback training. This bibliometric analysis presents the current status, knowledge base, and future neurofeedback study directions. These findings will benefit future researchers interested in applying neurofeedback as a potential neurorehabilitation approach for a wider population.</p> Siti Atiyah Ali Mazira Mohamad Ghazali Nurfaizatul Aisyah Ab Aziz Humaira Nisar Copyright (c) 2024 Siti Atiyah Ali, Mazira Mohamad Ghazali , Nurfaizatul Aisyah Ab Aziz, Humaira Nisar 2024-03-16 2024-03-16 7 1 265.1 265.16 10.31117/neuroscirn.v7i1.265 AfrAbia's silent struggle: Pesticides and Parkinson's disease unveiled <p>AfrAbia consists of members from both the Arab League and the African Union. The historical and geographical effects connect the neighbouring regions of Africa and the Arab world on a cross-cultural level. AfrAbia experiences a greater prevalence of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders because of elevated rates of consanguinity. The AfrAbian neuroscience community has unique problems due to the widespread occurrence of mental, neurological, and substance-use disorders. The limited physician-to-patient ratio can lead to heavy workloads per clinician, fostering expertise in their field due to increased practice opportunities arising from the demanding workload. The heightened clinical exposure leads to the emergence of study topics relevant to the local context. It improves the feasibility of clinical research, benefiting both the African population and the Global North. To summarise, there are abundant prospects for clinically focused neuroscience research to enhance healthcare in AfrAbia.</p> Wael Mohamed Copyright (c) 2024 Wael Mohamed 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 1 353.1 353.4 10.31117/neuroscirn.v7i1.353