Neuroscience Research Notes 2021-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Editorial Office Open Journal Systems A high quality, free open access and peer-reviewed journal from scientists to scientists. Relationship of tooth loss to mild cognitive impairment among middle-aged Mongolians: Mon-Timeline study 2021-08-05T01:40:56+08:00 Urangoo Ganbaatar Oyuntuya Gantulga Puntsagdulam Byambajav Maralgua Och Ganjargal Ganburged Tsolmon Jadamba Byambasuren Dagvajantsan Oyuntugs Byambasukh <p>Cognitive impairment is common in elderly people, so it is considered an ageing disorder. However, cognitive decline, including dementia, can also occur in middle-aged people. Cognitive impairment is associated with multiple risk factors. We hypothesised that tooth loss might also be a potential risk factor among Mongolians, as oral health problems are one of the significant health issues in Mongolia, especially in middle-aged people. In this cross-sectional study, we used the baseline data from the Mon-Timeline cohort study, including people older than 40 years of age (n=279). The amount of tooth loss was assessed by a trained researcher. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was defined as those participants scoring a total of £ 24 points based on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Unadjusted analysis showed that having more tooth loss (&gt;10) increased the risk of MCI by an odds ratio of 3.03 (1.49-6.17), as compared with having less tooth loss (£10). Even after adjusting for covariates, the association remained significant, suggesting that tooth loss is associated with MCI risk, independent of age, education, and other socioeconomic factors. There was no significant interaction effect of age in the association between tooth loss and MMSE scores. In conclusion, tooth loss may play a role in developing cognitive decline, especially in the early onset of dementia. Further studies are needed to investigate whether early tooth loss at younger ages is associated with dementia, especially among middle-aged people.</p> 2021-12-18T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Urangoo Ganbaatar, Oyuntuya Gantulga, Puntsagdulam Byambajav, Maralgua Och, Ganjargal Ganburged, Tsolmon Jadamba, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan, Oyuntugs Byambasukh The neurobiology of smartphone addiction in emerging adults evaluated using brain morphometry and resting-state functional MRI 2021-09-20T19:56:18+08:00 Aida Abdul Rashid Subapriya Suppiah Nisha Syed Nasser Hamed Sharifat Mazlyfarina Mohamad Jia Ling Loh Buhari Ibrahim Nur Shahidatul Nabila Ibrahim Nur Hafizah Mohad Azmi Ezamin Abdul Rahim Laila Mastura Ahmad Apandi Suzana Ab Hamid Yap Ngee Thai Siew Mooi Ching Fan Kee Hoo <p>The characteristics of smartphone addiction (SPA) can be evaluated by neuroimaging studies. Information on the brain structural alterations, and effects on psychosocial wellbeing, however, have not been concurrently evaluated. The aim of this study was to identify abnormalities in gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and neuronal functional alterations using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) in emerging adults with SPA. We correlated the neuroimaging parameters with indices for psychosocial wellbeing such as depression, anxiety, stress, and impulsivity. Forty participants (20 SPA and 20 age-matched healthy controls) were assessed using VBM and rs-fMRI. The smartphone addiction scale – Malay version (SAS-M) questionnaire scores were used to categorize the SPA and healthy control groups. DASS-21 and BIS-11 questionnaires were used to assess for psychosocial wellbeing and impulsivity, respectively. VBM identified the SPA group to have reduced gray matter volume in the insula and precentral gyrus; and increased grey matter volume in the precuneus relative to controls. Moderate correlation was observed between the precuneus volume and the SAS-M scores. Individuals with SPA showed significant rs-fMRI activations in the precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex (FWE uncorrected, p&lt;0.001). The severity of SPA was correlated with depression. Anxiety score was moderately correlated with reduced GMV at the precentral gyrus. Collectively, these results can be used to postulate that the structural and neuronal functional changes in the insula are linked to the neurobiology of SPA that shares similarities with other behavioural addictions.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Aida Abdul Rashid, Subapriya Suppiah, Nisha Syed Nasser, Hamed Sharifat, Mazlyfarina Mohamad, Jia Ling Loh, Buhari Ibrahim, Nur Shahidatul Nabila Ibrahim, Nur Hafizah Mohad Azmi, Ezamin Abdul Rahim, Laila Mastura Ahmad Apandi, Suzana Ab Hamid, Yap Ngee Thai, Siew Mooi Ching, Fan Kee Hoo Effect of diurnal changes on the auditory working memory in individuals with normal hearing 2021-08-14T11:58:43+08:00 Praveen Prakash Chandana Shivaiah Abishek Umashankar Prashanth Prabhu <p>The human circadian rhythmicity is an internal biological clock mechanism that enables them to effectively perform tasks during a particular time of the day, due to which they exhibit diurnal effects. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire classifies individuals as definitely morning, moderately morning, intermediate, moderately evening, and definitely evening type individuals based on their active performance during different times of the day. Literature show variations in visual, memory, audition, and other cognitive tasks throughout the day in every individual. The current study aimed to document the diurnal effects on auditory working memory, a phenomenon crucial for learning and academic outcomes and holds its role in various clinical and research fields. Thirty-two participants were enrolled (21 females and 11 males) and were classified based on the morningness-eveningness questionnaire. The Auditory Working Memory tests were carried out during the morning and evening for all the participants. Based on a parametric paired t-test, results reveal no significant differences between morning time and evening time across moderately morning, intermediate, and moderately evening groups implying that working memory is a higher-order function that shows no or negligible diurnal effects, unlike other lower-order functions like temporal processing of auditory signals.</p> 2021-12-08T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Praveen Prakash, Chandana Shivaiah, Abishek Umashankar, Prashanth Prabhu Concussion treatment through Baria zasal: An exploration of Traditional Mongolian Medicine 2021-08-13T23:37:55+08:00 Orgilbayar Ganbat Oyuntugs Byambasukh Tserendagva Dalkh Byambasuren Dagvajantsan <p>There is no specific treatment for concussion in modern medicine; existing treatments are limited to resting and restoring cognition. For Mongolians, seeking concussion treatment from a <em>bariachi</em>, an advanced practitioner of the <em>baria zasal</em> traditional massage therapy, is very common. The <em>baria zasal</em> technique has been passed down the generations for millions of years, keeping with the Mongolian nomadic culture and way of life. However, this Mongolian treatment is little known or researched internationally. Due to the lack of literature on this subject, conducting a meta-analysis or systematic review was impossible. We reviewed the literature published in Mongolian about this technique. We also searched articles published from 1 January 1921 to 20 June 2021 in PubMed using "concussion", "baria zasal", and "Bariachi" keywords. Although informal observation indicates this is a commonly sought treatment among patients, there are very few published scientific articles about the practice outside the realm of cultural anthropology. This may be due to a few reasons: the informal, semi-religious setting in which the treatment takes place makes it difficult to conduct scientific field research; concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury, making it impossible to identify changes in the brain as a result of the treatment using imaging methods and therefore difficult to verify; and lastly, <em>baria zasal</em> is generally uncontested as a treatment even by Mongolian medical professionals, therefore it has not been the subject of empirical debate. Moreover, it is not classified under a specific system, each <em>bariachi</em> having its technique. As <em>bariachis</em> do not receive formal training, their treatments often depend on instincts, natural talents, and personal abilities. Therefore, it is recommended to study the techniques of <em>baria zasal</em> of concussion to explain its enduring popularity in Mongolia and to ascertain how it interacts with standard western medical treatment.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Orgilbayar Ganbat, Oyuntugs Byambasukh, Tserendagva Dalkh, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan