Neuroscience Research Notes 2021-09-30T00:00:00+08:00 Editorial Office Open Journal Systems A high quality, free open access and peer-reviewed journal from scientists to scientists. Association between hand-grip strength and risk of stroke among Mongolian adults: Results from a population-based study 2021-07-15T00:08:36+08:00 Indra Altankhuyag Agiimaa Byambaa Anujin Tuvshinjargal Anar Bayarmunkh Tsolmon Jadamba Byambasuren Dagvajantsan Oyuntugs Byambasukh <p>Mongolia ranks third in the world in stroke-related deaths. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is associated with a higher risk of various metabolic disorders such as stroke. Thus, screening of sarcopenia is important. Hand-grip strength (HGS) can be used to predict sarcopenia in the short term. In this cross-sectional study, we used data (n=1180, mean age of 39.2 ± 15.2 and 33.2% males) from the Mon-Timeline cohort study, a multidisciplinary, prospective, population-based cohort study in Mongolia. A digital grip strength dynamometer (TKK 5401 GRIP D; Takei, Japan) was used to measure HGS. We performed binary logistic regression analysis between HGS and stroke risk. Suspected sarcopenia was defined when HGS is less than the 25th percentile of HGS. In this study, 3.3% of all participants had a stroke. The incidence of stroke was significantly higher (5.2% and 1.9%) in people with suspected sarcopenia. According to body composition, the incidence of stroke was more frequent in sarcopenic obese people: 1.3%, 2.4%, 2.8% and 6.2% in normal (non-obese and non-sarcopenic), sarcopenic (non-obese), obese (non-sarcopenic) and sarcopenic obese groups, respectively. In regression analysis, the OR (95% CI) was 2.84 (1.44; 5.59) for sarcopenic compared with non-sarcopenic. The adjustments for age, gender, education, body mass index, waist circumference and hypertensive status attenuated the associations, but lower HGS remained significantly associated with a higher risk of stroke. In conclusion, lower HGS was significantly associated with a higher risk of stroke independent of adiposity and hypertensive status in Mongolian adults.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Indra Altankhuyag, Agiimaa Byambaa, Anujin Tuvshinjargal, Anar Bayarmunkh, Tsolmon Jadamba, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan, Oyuntugs Byambasukh Electrophysiological features of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Mongolian adult patients 2021-07-25T16:08:32+08:00 Gantuya Gantumur Munkhbayar Rentsenbat Sarangerel Jambal Byambasuren Dagvajantsan <p>The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare but severe disorder that affects peripheral nerves and is classified into several subtypes based on clinical presentation and electrophysiological abnormalities. Incidence and predominant subtypes of GBS differ geographically. The diagnosis is made upon clinical features and confirmed by nerve conduction studies (NCSs) which can differentiate subtypes such as demyelinated and axonal. Demyelinating subtypes in Europe and North America and axonal subtypes in Asia are predominant. Electrophysiological subtypes have not been determined in Mongolia. Therefore, we aimed to determine common electrophysiological subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Mongolia. In our study, 75 patients referred to Reflex Neurological Clinic between 2016 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. After excluding the cases by the criteria, patients were classified as demyelinating, axonal, normal and equivocal subtypes based on Hadden criteria. We compared the electrophysiological features of axonal and demyelinating subtypes. SPSS-23 was used for statistical analysis. The results are expressed in averages (standard deviations) and percentages (numbers). The difference between the mean and the group of variables was calculated using the T-test and the Chi-square test. Patients were 44% male (33), and the mean age was 46.4±15.1. There was no significant association between seasonal factors and electrophysiological subtypes. Among 75 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a nerve conduction study was performed in the first week on 36% of patients, 33.3% in the 2<sup>nd</sup> week, and others in the 3<sup>rd</sup>-4<sup>th</sup> week after symptom onset. Electrophysiology subtypes were classified as demyelinating (65.3%), axonal (20%), within the normal range (5.4%) and equivocal (9.3%) based on Hadden criteria. The absence of F-waves on electrophysiological examination was higher in patients within 14 days of the disease onset, whereas non-sensory changes were higher in patients after 14 days. We conclude that acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDP) was the most frequent subtype of GBS in Mongolia. </p> 2021-08-26T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gantuya Gantumur, Munkhbayar Rentsenbat, Sarangerel Jambal, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan Vascular cognitive impairment risk among Mongolian adults: An overview 2021-07-19T19:01:57+08:00 Darisuren Namjil Byambasuren Dagvajantsan Oyuntugs Byambasukh <p>Cognitive impairment is commonly associated with older people. It can also occur in middle-aged people due to non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases (non-communicable diseases) has been rapidly increasing in Mongolia. Therefore, we aimed to overview these studies to identify whether the increasing prevalence of non-communicable disease is associated with the risks of cognitive impairment in Mongolians. Published literature between 01 January 1980 and 20 June 2021 were included in the study. We searched articles published in journals registered to PubMed and doctoral and master's dissertations registered in the Central Medical Library of Mongolia using the following keywords: "cognitive impairment", "dementia", "mild cognitive impairment", "Alzheimer", "vascular dementia", “diabetes", "Mongolia", "obesity", "stroke", "hypertension". While there were no internationally published articles in this field, seven studies were either published in local research journals or as doctoral or master’s dissertations. Although few studies have been conducted in Mongolia, people with lifestyle-related conditions such as hypertension and diabetes are strongly associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. The increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases may be one of the factors contributing to the prevalence of vascular cognitive impairment.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Darisuren Namjil, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan, Oyuntugs Byambasukh