Neuromarketing: The popularity of the brain-imaging and physiological tools


  • Ahmed H. Alsharif Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Nor Zafir Md Salleh Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Rohaizat Baharun Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.



neuromarketing, marketing, consumer behaviour, neuromarketing tools


In the last two decades, neuromarketing (NM) studies are snowballed because scientists and researchers are looking for understanding the mechanisms of decision-making in the consumer's brain toward marketing stimuli, for example, but not limited to advertising and brands that have not changed overnight. For this purpose, NM research is using state-of-the-art technology to gauge the responses of consumers’ minds to marketing stimuli, which is impossible by traditional marketing methods. In this paper, we have concentrated on neuromarketing tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and eye-tracking (ET). Literature indicates that EEG, fMRI, and ET enable to gauge consumers' neurometrics and biometrics responses; thereby, they provide valuable information about the physiological and mental reactions toward marketing stimuli, which can be used to improve marketing research. Neuromarketing can provide valuable information about consumer behaviour, which is impossible by traditional methods. We hope that this study provides valuable insights into neuromarketing and future directions.


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How to Cite

Alsharif, A. H., Md Salleh, N. Z. and Baharun, R. (2021) “Neuromarketing: The popularity of the brain-imaging and physiological tools”, Neuroscience Research Notes, 3(5), pp. 13–22. doi: 10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i5.80.