Neuromarketing: Marketing research in the new millennium

Authors

  • Ahmed H. Alsharif Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Nor Zafir Md Salleh Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Rohaizat Baharun Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3.79

Keywords:

neuromarketing, neuromarketing tools, triune brain, emotion, memory, attention

Abstract

Neuromarketing (NM) uses neuroscience tools, for example, but not limited to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) to study, explore, analyze, and explain the neural correlates of consumer’s behavior (i.e., decision-making processes), the cognitive processes (i.e., attention and memory) and emotional processes (i.e., emotion) of interest for marketing research (e.g., advertising, brand, product, price). This study analyzes the relevant literature and sheds light on the triune brain of humans, the dimensions of NM such as emotion, attention, and memory. Currently, emotional and cognitive processes have remarkably received attention from academic and industrial environments. Thus, NM presents unrivalled possibilities to record the activity regions in consumers' brains and provide precise information about which neurons are active when consumers are exposed to marketing stimuli. To best our knowledge, this will aid in shaping and understanding the central theme and set the future research directions for the researchers.

References

Agarwal, S., & Dutta, T. (2015). Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: Current understanding and the way forward. Decision, 42(4), 457-462. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40622-015-0113-1

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., & Baharun, R. (2021a). The neural correlates of emotion in decision-making. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(7), 64-77. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v11-i7/10075

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., & Baharun, R. (2021b). Neuromarketing: The popularity of the brain-imaging and physiological tools. Neuroscience Research Notes, 3(5), 13-22. https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i5.80

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., & Baharun, R. (2021c). To better understand the role of emotional processes in decision-making. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 10(2), 49-67. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarems/v10-i2/9883

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., Baharun, R., & Effandi, Y. M. (2021d). Consumer behaviour through neuromarketing approach. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 27(3), 344-354. https://doi.org/10.47750/cibg.2021.27.03.048

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., Baharun, R., Rami Hashem E., A., Mansor, A. A., Ali, J., & Abbas, A. F. (2021e). Neuroimaging techniques in advertising research: Main applications, development, and brain regions and processes. Sustainability, 13(11), 6488-6513. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116488

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., Baharun, R., & Safaei, M. (2020). Neuromarketing approach: An overview and future research directions. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 98(7), 991-1001.

Anuar, N. N. A., Isa, S. M., & Mansor, A. A. (2021). Subconscious response on marketing mix for green and non-green goods: A neuromarketing study. National & International Conference, Bangkok, Thailand. 1(12), 73-83.

Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 2, 89-195. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781316422250.025

Barrett, L. F. (2012). Emotions are real. Emotion, 12(3), 413. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027555

Brammer, M. (2004). Brain scam? Nature Neuroscience, 7(10), 1015-1015. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1004-1015

Carrington, M. J., Neville, B. A., & Whitwell, G. J. (2014). Lost in translation: Exploring the ethical consumer intention–behavior gap. Journal of Business Research, 67(1), 2759-2767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.09.022

Catani, M., Dell’Acqua, F., & De Schotten, M. T. (2013). A revised limbic system model for memory, emotion and behaviour. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 1724-1737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.07.001

Chen, Y., Fowler, C. H., Papa, V. B., Lepping, R. J., Brucks, M. G., Fox, A. T., & Martin, L. E. (2018). Adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to e‐cigarette advertising. Addiction Biology, 23(2), 761-771. https://doi.org/10.1111/adb.12510

Cherubino, P., Martinez-Levy, A. C., Caratu, M., Cartocci, G., Di Flumeri, G., Modica, E., . . . Trettel, A. (2019). Consumer behaviour through the eyes of neurophysiological measures: State of the art and future trends. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 3(2), 01-41. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1976847

Chow, Y., Masiak, J., Mikołajewska, E., Mikołajewski, D., Wójcik, G. M., Wallace, B., . . . Olajossy, M. (2018). Limbic brain structures and burnout- A systematic review. Advances in Medical Sciences, 63(1), 192-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2017.11.004

Damasio, A. R. (2003). Looking for Spinoza: Joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2004.05.004

Dixon, T. (2012). Emotion: The history of a keyword in crisis. Emotion Review, 4(4), 338-344. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073912445814

Dragolea, L., & Cotirlea, D. (2011). Neuromarketing: between influence and manipulation. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 3, 78-88.

Du Plessis, E. (2005). The advertised mind: Ground-breaking insights into how our brains respond to advertising. Kogan Page Publishers. https://doi.org/10.2501/s0021849906000158

Fine, E. J., Ionita, C. C., & Lohr, L. (2002). The history of the development of the cerebellar examination. Seminars in Neurology, 22(4): 375-384. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-36759

Fortunato, V. C. R., Giraldi, J. D. M. E., & Oliveira, J. H. C. D. (2014). A review of studies on neuromarketing: Practical results, techniques, contributions and limitations. Journal of Management Research, 6(2), 201-221. https://doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v6i2.5446

Frijda, N. H. (1987). Emotion, cognitive structure, and action tendency. Cognition and Emotion, 1(2), 115-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699938708408043

Genco, S., Pohlmann, A., & Steidl, P. (2013). Neuromarketing for dummies. USA. John Wiley & Sons.

Hodos, W. (2009). In E. a. t. s. naturae (Ed.), Evolution of cerebellum (pp. 1212-1219). MD, USA. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29678-2_3124

Isa, S. M., Mansor, A. A., & Razali, K. (2019). Ethics in neuromarketing and its Implications on Business to Stay Vigilant. KnE Social Sciences, 2019, 687–711. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i22.5082

Javor, A., Koller, M., Lee, N., Chamberlain, L., & Ransmayr, G. (2013). Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: Contributions to neurology. BMC Neurology, 13(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2377-13-13

Jordao, I. L. D. S., Souza, M. T. D., Oliveira, J. H. C. D., & Giraldi, J. D. M. E. (2017). Neuromarketing applied to consumer behaviour: An integrative literature review between 2010 and 2015. International Journal of Business Forecasting and Marketing Intelligence, 3(3), 270-288. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijbfmi.2017.10006047

Kalat, J. W. (2015). Biological psychology. Toronto, USA. Nelson Education.

Kenning, P., & Linzmajer, M. (2011). Consumer neuroscience: an overview of an emerging discipline with implications for consumer policy. Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, 6(1), 111-125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00003-010-0652-5

Khushaba, R. N., Wise, C., Kodagoda, S., Louviere, J., Kahn, B. E., & Townsend, C. (2013). Consumer neuroscience: Assessing the brain response to marketing stimuli using electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye tracking. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(9), 3803-3812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2012.12.095

Knutson, B., Rick, S., Wimmer, G. E., Prelec, D., & Loewenstein, G. (2007). Neural predictors of purchases. Neuron, 53(1), 147-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2006.11.010

Lazarus, R. S. (2006). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. London, UK. Springer Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2850.1999.00227-9.x

LeDoux, J. E., & Brown, R. (2017). A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(10), E2016-E2025. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1619316114

Lim, W. M. (2018). Demystifying neuromarketing. Journal of Business Research, 91, 205-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.05.036

Lodato, S., & Arlotta, P. (2015). Generating neuronal diversity in the mammalian cerebral cortex. Annual Review of Cell Developmental Biology, 31, 699-720. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100814-125353

Lui, J. H., Hansen, D. V., & Kriegstein, A. R. (2011). Development and evolution of the human neocortex. Cells, 146(1), 18-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.030

Luna, F., & Macklin, R. (2013). Research involving human beings, vulnerability and exploitation. In A companion to bioethics (2nd ed., pp. 459-468). West Susses, UK. John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444307818.ch38

MacLean, P. D., & George, M. S. (1990). The triune brain in evolution: Role in paleocerebral functions. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 5(1), 68-84. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.250.4978.303-a

Matthews, G., & Wells, A. (1999). The Cognitive Science of Attention and Emotion (Tim Dalgleish & M. J. Power Eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/0470013494.ch9

McClure, S. M., Li, J., Tomlin, D., Cypert, K. S., Montague, L. M., & Montague, P. R. (2004). Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks. Neuron, 44(2), 379-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09.019

Mileti, A., Guido, G., & Prete, M. I. (2016). Nanomarketing: A new frontier for neuromarketing. Psychology & Marketing, 33(8), 664-674. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20833

Milosavljevic, M., Navalpakkam, V., Koch, C., & Rangel, A. (2012). Relative visual saliency differences induce sizable bias in consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(1), 67-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.10.002

Morillo, L. M. S., Alvarez-Garcia, J. A., Gonzalez-Abril, L., & Ramírez, J. A. O. (2016). Discrete classification technique applied to TV advertisements liking recognition system based on low-cost EEG headsets. Biomedical Engineering Online, 15(1), 197-218. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12938-016-0181-2

Murphy, E., Illes, J., & Reiner, P. (2008). Neuroethics of neuromarketing. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 7(4), 293-302. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.252

Myers, D. G., & DeWall, N. C. (2021). Psychology (13th ed.). New York, USA. Worth Publishers.

Nemorin, S., & Gandy-Jr, O. H. (2017). Exploring neuromarketing and its reliance on remote sensing: Social and ethical concerns. International Journal of Communication, 11, 4824-4844.

Orzan, G., Zara, I., & Purcarea, V. (2012). Neuromarketing techniques in pharmaceutical drugs advertising: A discussion and agenda for future research. Journal of Medicine and Life, 5(4), 428-432.

Page, G. (2012). Scientific realism: What neuromarketing can and can't tell us about consumers. International Journal of Market Research, 54(2), 287-290. https://doi.org/10.2501/IJMR-54-2-287-290

Papez, J. W. (1937). A proposed mechanism of emotion. Archives of Neurology Psychiatry, 38(4), 725-743. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurpsyc.1937.02260220069003

Plassmann, H., Ramsoy, T. Z., & Milosavljevic, M. (2012). Branding the brain: A critical review and outlook. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(1), 18-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.11.010

Pozharliev, R., Verbeke, W. J., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2017). Social consumer neuroscience: Neurophysiological measures of advertising effectiveness in a social context. Journal of Advertising, 46(3), 351-362. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2017.1343162

Ramos, T., Marques, J., & Garcia-Marques, L. (2017). The memory of what we do not recall: Dissociations and theoretical debates in the study of implicit memory. Psicológica, 38(2), 365-393.

Ramsoy, T. Z. (2015). Introduction to neuromarketing & consumer neuroscience. Rørvig, Denmark. Neurons Inc.

Ruschendorf, J. (2020). Neuromarketing: Insights into the consumer brain and its adaption to brand management. (Bachelor), Novia University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.

Russell, J. A., & Barrett, L. F. (1999). Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: Dissecting the elephant. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(5), 805. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.76.5.805

Scheff, T. J., Wentworth, W. M., & Ryan, J. (1995). Social perspectives on emotions. Contemporary Sociology, 24(4), 25-46. https://doi.org/10.2307/2077690

Scherer, K. R. (2005). What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information, 44(4), 695-729. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018405058216

Schiller, D., Freeman, J. B., Mitchell, J. P., Uleman, J. S., & Phelps, E. A. (2009). A neural mechanism of first impressions. Nature Neuroscience, 12(4), 508-522. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2278

Sebastian, V. (2014). Neuromarketing and evaluation of cognitive and emotional responses of consumers to marketing stimuli. Procedia Social Behavioral Sciences, 127(2), 753-757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.349

Sirico Jr, L. J. (2017). The Trial Lawyer and the Reptilian Brain: A Critique. Cleveland State Law Review 65(3), 411-425.

Spence, C. (2020). On the ethics of neuromarketing and sensory marketing. In Organizational Neuroethics (pp. 9-29). Switzerland. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27177-0_3

Spielman, R. M., Dumper, K., Jenkins, W., Lovett, M., & Perlmutter, M. (2014). Psychology. Houston, USA. OpenStax.

Stanton, S., Armstrong, W., & Huettel, S. (2017). Neuromarketing: Ethical implications of its use and potential misuse. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(4), 799-811. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3059-0

Stewart, P. A., Eubanks, A. D., Dye, R. G., Gong, Z. J. H., Bucy, E. P., Wicks, R. H., & Eidelman, S. (2018). Candidate Performance and Observable Audience Response: Laughter and Applause-Cheering During the First 2016 Clinton-Trump Presidential Debate. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01182

Ulman, Y. I., Cakar, T., & Yildiz, G. (2015). Ethical Issues in neuromarketing: I consume, therefore I am. Science and Engineering Ethics, 21(5), 1271-1284. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-014-9581-5

Vecchiato, G., Cherubino, P., Trettel, A., & Babiloni, F. (2013). Neuroelectrical brain imaging tools for the study of the efficacy of TV advertising stimuli and their application to neuromarketing. Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38064-8

Zaltman, G. (2000). Consumer researchers: Take a hike! Journal of Consumer Research, 26(4), 423-428. https://doi.org/10.1086/209573

Downloads

Published

2021-09-14

How to Cite

Alsharif, A. H., Md Salleh, N. Z. and Baharun, R. (2021) “Neuromarketing: Marketing research in the new millennium”, Neuroscience Research Notes, 4(3), pp. 27–35. doi: 10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3.79.

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.