Review of eye-tracking: A neuromarketing technique


  • Benneth Chiemelie Iloka Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Grace Ifeoma Anukwe Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu State, Nigeria.



eye-tracking, marketing, neuromarketing, neuroscience


Following technological advancements, the marketing world has witnessed a tremendous introduction of technologies that aid decision making. The essence is that through the adoption of such technologies, the marketers will make more informed decisions. Neuromarketing is a new marketing field that has witnessed increased penetration of technologies. As a field, it is centred on understanding the human brain's functionality when exposed to marketing activities. This article reviews eye-tracking as a neuromarketing tool. The review represents ideas from different scholars concerning the topic, concisely condensed to form the views held in this article. Findings from the review show that eye-tracking is one of the most commonly adopted neuromarketing tools because it is easier to access and implement with other tools. On the same note, some limitations come with this tool. The review concluded by stating that the best results with eye-tracking are obtained when combined with other tools to overcome these limitations and produce more informed data for better decisions and customer service.


Behe, B. K., Zhao, J., Sage, L., Huddleston, P. T., & Minahan, S. (2013). Display signs and involvement: The visual path to purchase intention. International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 23, 511–522.

Borghini, G., Aricò, P., Di Flumeri, G., & Babiloni, F. (2017). Evaluation of Mental States in Aviation Personnel. Industrial Neuroscience in Aviation, 18, 83–113.

Camerer, C. F., Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D. (2004). Neuroeconomics: Why Economics Needs Brains. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 106(3), 555–579.

Campos, B. (2017, June 23). 5 neuromarketing techniques for marketers. Cyberclick.

Chae, S. W., & Lee, K. C. (2013). Exploring the effect of the human brand on consumers' decision quality in online shopping: An eye-tracking approach. Online Information Review, 37, 83–100.

Cherubino, P., Maglione, A. G., Graziani, I., Trettel, A., Vecchiato, G., & Babiloni, F. (2015). Measuring Cognitive and Emotional Processes in Retail. In Successful Technological Integration for Competitive Advantage in Retail Settings (pp. 76–92). IGI Global.

Dooley, R. (2019, June 10). Child Labor: Put That Baby to Work! Neuromarketing.

dos Santos, R. d-O. J., de Oliveira, J. H., Rocha, J. B. & Girald, J. d-M. E. (2015). Eye Tracking in Neuromarketing: A Research Agenda for Marketing Studies. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 7(1), 32–42.

Farnsworth, B. (2019, March 5). 15 Powerful Examples of Neuromarketing in Action. IMotions.

Fiszman, B. P., Velasco, C., Salgado-Montejo, A., & Spence, C. (2013). Using combined eye-tracking and word association in order to assess novel packaging solutions: A case study involving jam jars. Food Quality and Preference, 28, 328-338.

Genco, S. (2019). What Eye-Tracking Can and Can't Tell You About Attention. Neuromarketing Science and Business Association.

Glimcher, P. W., & Rustichini, A. (2004). Neuroeconomics: The consilience of brain and decision. Science, 306(5695), 447–452.

Harrell, E. (2019, January 23). Neuromarketing: What You Need to Know. Harvard Business Review.

Hill, D. (2011). Emotionomics: Leveraging emotions for business success (2nd ed.). London, United Kingdom: Kogan Page.

Ho, H. F. (2014). The effects of controlling visual attention to handbags for women in online shops: Evidence from eye movements. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 146–152.

Iloka, B., C., & Onyeke, K., J. (2020). Neuromarketing: a historical review. Neuroscience Research Notes, 3(3), 27–35.

Lee, N., Broderick, A. J., & Chamberlain, L. (2007). What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63(2), 199–204.

Nielsen, J., & Pernice, K. (2009). Eyetracking web usability. In Berkeley. CA: New Riders.

Orquín, J. L., & Loose, S. M. (2013). Attention and choice: A review on eye movements in decision making. Acta Psychologica, 144, 190–206.

Pieters, R., & Wedel, M. (2004). Attention capture and transfer in advertising. Brand, pictorial, and text-size effects. Journal of Marketing, 68(2), 36–50.

Ramsøy, T. Z. (2015). Introduction to neuromarketing & consumer neuroscience. Neurons Inc.

Tallis, R., & Taylor, M. (2011). Neuromania? RSA Journal, 157(5547), 48.

Velásquez, J. D. (2013). Combining eye-tracking technologies with web usage mining for identifying Website Key objects. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 26, 1469–1478.

Yoo, C. Y. (2009). Unconscious processing of web advertising: Effects on implicit memory, attitude toward the brand, and consideration set. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 22(2), 2–18.

Zhao, Q., & Koch, C. (2013). Learning saliency-based visual attention: A review. Signal Processing, 93, 1401–1407.

Zurawicki, L. (2010). Neuromarketing: Exploring the brain of the consumer. Boston, MA: Springer.




How to Cite

Iloka, B. C. and Anukwe, G. I. (2020) “Review of eye-tracking: A neuromarketing technique”, Neuroscience Research Notes, 3(4), pp. 29–34. doi: 10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i4.61.