Review of eye-tracking: A neuromarketing technique
Keywords:eye-tracking, marketing, neuromarketing, neuroscience
Following technological advancements, the marketing world has witnessed a tremendous introduction of technologies that aid decision making. The essence is that through the adoption of such technologies, the marketers will make more informed decisions. Neuromarketing is a new marketing field that has witnessed increased penetration of technologies. As a field, it is centred on understanding the human brain's functionality when exposed to marketing activities. This article reviews eye-tracking as a neuromarketing tool. The review represents ideas from different scholars concerning the topic, concisely condensed to form the views held in this article. Findings from the review show that eye-tracking is one of the most commonly adopted neuromarketing tools because it is easier to access and implement with other tools. On the same note, some limitations come with this tool. The review concluded by stating that the best results with eye-tracking are obtained when combined with other tools to overcome these limitations and produce more informed data for better decisions and customer service.
Behe, B. K., Zhao, J., Sage, L., Huddleston, P. T., & Minahan, S. (2013). Display signs and involvement: The visual path to purchase intention. International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 23, 511–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593969.2013.832695
Borghini, G., Aricò, P., Di Flumeri, G., & Babiloni, F. (2017). Evaluation of Mental States in Aviation Personnel. Industrial Neuroscience in Aviation, 18, 83–113. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58598-7
Camerer, C. F., Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D. (2004). Neuroeconomics: Why Economics Needs Brains. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 106(3), 555–579. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3441124
Campos, B. (2017, June 23). 5 neuromarketing techniques for marketers. Cyberclick. https://www.cyberclick.net/numericalblogen/5-neuromarketing-techniques-for-marketers
Chae, S. W., & Lee, K. C. (2013). Exploring the effect of the human brand on consumers' decision quality in online shopping: An eye-tracking approach. Online Information Review, 37, 83–100. https://doi.org/10.1108/14684521311311649
Cherubino, P., Maglione, A. G., Graziani, I., Trettel, A., Vecchiato, G., & Babiloni, F. (2015). Measuring Cognitive and Emotional Processes in Retail. In Successful Technological Integration for Competitive Advantage in Retail Settings (pp. 76–92). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-8297-9.ch004
Dooley, R. (2019, June 10). Child Labor: Put That Baby to Work! Neuromarketing. https://www.neurosciencemarketing.com/blog/articles/baby-heat-maps.htm
dos Santos, R. d-O. J., de Oliveira, J. H., Rocha, J. B. & Girald, J. d-M. E. (2015). Eye Tracking in Neuromarketing: A Research Agenda for Marketing Studies. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 7(1), 32–42. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v7n1p32
Farnsworth, B. (2019, March 5). 15 Powerful Examples of Neuromarketing in Action. IMotions. https://imotions.com/blog/neuromarketing-examples/
Fiszman, B. P., Velasco, C., Salgado-Montejo, A., & Spence, C. (2013). Using combined eye-tracking and word association in order to assess novel packaging solutions: A case study involving jam jars. Food Quality and Preference, 28, 328-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2012.10.006
Genco, S. (2019). What Eye-Tracking Can and Can't Tell You About Attention. Neuromarketing Science and Business Association. https://www.nmsba.com/buying-neuromarketing/neuromarketing-techniques/what-eye-tracking-can-and-cant-tell-you-about-attention
Glimcher, P. W., & Rustichini, A. (2004). Neuroeconomics: The consilience of brain and decision. Science, 306(5695), 447–452. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1102566
Harrell, E. (2019, January 23). Neuromarketing: What You Need to Know. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2019/01/neuromarketing-what-you-need-to-know
Hill, D. (2011). Emotionomics: Leveraging emotions for business success (2nd ed.). London, United Kingdom: Kogan Page.
Ho, H. F. (2014). The effects of controlling visual attention to handbags for women in online shops: Evidence from eye movements. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 146–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.08.006
Iloka, B., C., & Onyeke, K., J. (2020). Neuromarketing: a historical review. Neuroscience Research Notes, 3(3), 27–35. https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i3.54
Lee, N., Broderick, A. J., & Chamberlain, L. (2007). What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63(2), 199–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.03.007
Nielsen, J., & Pernice, K. (2009). Eyetracking web usability. In Berkeley. CA: New Riders.
Orquín, J. L., & Loose, S. M. (2013). Attention and choice: A review on eye movements in decision making. Acta Psychologica, 144, 190–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.06.003
Pieters, R., & Wedel, M. (2004). Attention capture and transfer in advertising. Brand, pictorial, and text-size effects. Journal of Marketing, 68(2), 36–50. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.22.214.171.124794
Ramsøy, T. Z. (2015). Introduction to neuromarketing & consumer neuroscience. Neurons Inc.
Tallis, R., & Taylor, M. (2011). Neuromania? RSA Journal, 157(5547), 48. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41380121
Velásquez, J. D. (2013). Combining eye-tracking technologies with web usage mining for identifying Website Key objects. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 26, 1469–1478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engappai.2013.01.003
Yoo, C. Y. (2009). Unconscious processing of web advertising: Effects on implicit memory, attitude toward the brand, and consideration set. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 22(2), 2–18. https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.20110
Zhao, Q., & Koch, C. (2013). Learning saliency-based visual attention: A review. Signal Processing, 93, 1401–1407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sigpro.2012.06.014
Zurawicki, L. (2010). Neuromarketing: Exploring the brain of the consumer. Boston, MA: Springer.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Benneth Chiemelie Iloka, Grace Anukwe
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The observations and associated materials published or posted by NeurosciRN are licensed by the authors for use and distribution in accord with the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC 4.0 international, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.