Default mode network perturbations in Alzheimer's disease: an fMRI study in Klang Valley, Malaysia


  • Nur Hafizah Mohad Azmi Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia
  • Subapriya Suppiah (1) Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia (2) Pusat Pengimejan Diagnostik Nuklear, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia (3) Unit Pengimejan Nuklear Hospital Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia (4) Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nur Shahidatul Nabila Ibrahim Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Persiaran Universiti 1, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Ibrahim Buhari (1) Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia (2) Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bauchi State University, PMB 65, Gadau, Nigeria
  • Vengkhata Priya Seriramulu Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mazlyfarina Mohamad Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Thilakavathy Karuppiah (1) Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia (2) Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nur Farhayu Omar Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia
  • Normala Ibrahim (1) Unit Pengimejan Nuklear Hospital Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia (2) Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia
  • Rizzah Mazzuin Razali Department of Medicine, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Jalan Pahang, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Noor Harzana Harrun Klinik Kesihatan Pandamaran, Persiaran Raja Muda Musa, 42000 Klang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Hakimah Mohammad Sallehuddin (1) Unit Pengimejan Nuklear Hospital Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia (2) Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia (3) Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nisha Syed Nasser Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798, Singapore
  • Umar Ahmad (1) Molecular Genetics Informatics, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Bauchi State University, PMB 65, Gadau, Nigeria (2) Institute of Pathogen Genomics, Centre for Laboratory and Systems Networks, Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC), African Union Commission, PO Box 3243, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.



Alzheimer's disease, Voxel-based morphometry, Seed-based analysis, Grey matter volume, Fault mode network


The default mode network (DMN) is a large neural network that has a significant correlation with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Grey matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity (FC) involving the regions of the DMN have been noted to differ significantly between AD and healthy older adults. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of data on the structural and functional changes in the DMN of AD patients in Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Klang Valley, Malaysia, to evaluate AD subjects compared to healthy controls (HC) using a resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) experiment. We recruited 22 subjects (AD=11, HC=11) and conducted neuropsychological tests such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). The subjects then underwent rs-fMRI scans, and subsequently, we quantitatively analysed the GMV by Voxel based Morphometry (VBM) using the structural data. We also utilised the CONN toolbox on Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to evaluate the FC and activation of the nodes of the DMN. In comparison with the HC group, the AD group demonstrated a reduction in GMV in the right and left inferior temporal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus medial segment, right gyrus rectus, right temporal lobe, left putamen, and right precuneus. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the FC of the nodes of the DMN noted on rs-fMRI (cluster-size corrected p<0.05). In particular, the precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex had decreased FC in AD compared to HC. Hence, structural and resting-state fMRI can detect distinct imaging biomarkers of AD based on GMV and DMN functional connectivity profiles. This tool can be used as a non-invasive tool for improving the feature detection and diagnosis of AD in the Malaysian population.


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How to Cite

Mohad Azmi , N. H., Suppiah , S., Ibrahim, N. S. N., Buhari, I., Seriramulu , V. P., Mohamad , M., Karuppiah , T., Omar, N. F., Ibrahim, N., Razali , R. M., Harrun , N. H., Sallehuddin , H. M., Syed Nasser, N. and Ahmad, U. (2024) “Default mode network perturbations in Alzheimer’s disease: an fMRI study in Klang Valley, Malaysia”, Neuroscience Research Notes, 7(1), pp. 284.1–284.14. doi: 10.31117/neuroscirn.v7i1.284.