Lexical access in brain-damaged individuals: Evidence from anomic aphasia
Keywords:Facilitation, Inhibition, Accuracy, vocal reacton time
Facilitation and inhibition are the two mechanisms of lexical activation. If one word in the lexical facilitates the activation of the other word, it is termed facilitation. On the other hand, if one word/lexical item impedes the activation of the other word in the lexicon, it is called inhibition. Many experimental tasks like naming and priming tasks can be used to tap these two mechanisms of lexical activation. The current study aimed to test these two patterns of lexical activation in persons with anomic aphasia. Ten persons with anomic aphasia and ten neurologically healthy individuals designated as group 1 and group 2 served as participants. The blocked naming task was administered to the participants. The semantically related blocks comprised pictures belonging to the same lexical category, while semantically unrelated blocks comprised pictures belonging to different lexical categories. For group 1, vocal reaction time and accuracy scores were better for unrelated blocks than related ones. For group 2, there was no evident difference between the vocal reaction time and accuracy scores for related and unrelated blocks. The difference between the vocal reaction time for semantically related and unrelated blocks was significant statistically only for group 1, indicating that the mechanism of lexical activation was different for the two groups. Better vocal reaction time for unrelated blocks indicated inhibition in persons with anomic aphasia.
Blumstein, S. E., Milberg, W., Brown, T., Hutchinson, A., Kurowski, K., & Burton, M. W. (2000). The mapping from sound structure to the lexicon in aphasia: Evidence from rhyme and repetition priming. Brain and Language, 72(2), 75–99. https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.1999.2276
Bub, D., Black, S., Howell, J., & Kertesz, A. (1987). Speech output processes and reading. In M. Coltheart, G. Sartori, & R. Job (Eds.), The cognitive neuropsychology of language (pp. 79–110). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Butterworth, B., Howard, D., & Mcloughlin, P. (1984). The semantic deficit in aphasia: The relationship between semantic errors in auditory comprehension and picture naming. Neuropsychologia, 22(4), 409–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(84)90036-8
Caramazza, A. (1997). How Many Levels of Processing Are There in Lexical Access? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 14(1), 177–208. https://doi.org/10.1080/026432997381664
De Groot, A. M. B. (1984). Primed Lexical Decision: Combined Effects of the Proportion of Related Prime-Target Pairs and the Stimulus-Onset Asynchrony of Prime and Target. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 36(2), 253–280. https://doi.org/10.1080/14640748408402158
Dell, G. S., Lawler, E. N., Harris, H. D., & Gordon, J. K. (2004). Models of errors of omission in aphasic naming. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 21(2–4), 125–145. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643290342000320
Foygel, D., & Dell, G. S. (2000). Models of Impaired Lexical Access in Speech Production. Journal of Memory and Language, 43(2), 182–216. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2000.2716
Harnish, S. M. (2015). Anomia and anomic aphasia: Implications for lexical processing. In The Oxford Handbook of Aphasia and Language Disorders (pp. 121–144). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199772391.013.7
Hubbard, C.J & Arnold C.J (2013) Lexical access in Broca's aphasia and anomic aphasia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 94, 133–134. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.09.064
Janssen, N., Schirm, W., Mahon, B. Z., & Caramazza, A. (2008). Semantic Interference in a Delayed Naming Task: Evidence for the Response Exclusion Hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 34(1), 249–256. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-73220.127.116.11
Nikitha, M., Gargeshwari, A., & Ahmed, W. (2013). Adaptation of 260 picture naming test in Kannada. Languages in India, 256-267.
Raymer, A. M., & Rothi, L. J. G. (2015). Aphasia syndromes: Introduction and value in clinical practice. In The Oxford Handbook of Aphasia and Language Disorders (pp. 3–10). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199772391.013.20
Schriefers, H., Meyer, A. S., & Levelt, W. J. M. (1990). Exploring the time course of lexical access in language production: Picture-word interference studies. Journal of Memory and Language, 29(1), 86–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(90)90011-N
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Biraj Bhattarai, Abhishek Budiguppe Panchakshari
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The observations and associated materials published or posted by NeurosciRN are licensed by the authors for use and distribution in accord with the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC 4.0 international, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.